When is a coo­kie “strict­ly necessary”?

New state­ments from the super­vi­so­ry aut­ho­ri­ties in Ger­ma­ny and Luxembourg

What are the requi­re­ments for pla­cing web­site coo­kies on com­pu­ters? This ques­ti­on, which has been the sub­ject of much dis­cus­sion and con­tro­ver­sy sin­ce the ePri­va­cy Direc­ti­ve, has come into shar­per focus again in Ger­ma­ny with the ent­ry into force of the Tele­com­mu­ni­ca­ti­ons Tele­me­dia Data Pro­tec­tion Act (TTDSG). In prin­ci­ple, with respect to con­sent for pla­cing coo­kies, a distinc­tion must be made bet­ween “strict­ly neces­sa­ry” coo­kies in the terms of Artic­le 4(3), Sen­tence 2, Alter­na­ti­ve 2 of the ePri­va­cy Direc­ti­ve and other coo­kies. While no con­sent is requi­red for strict­ly neces­sa­ry coo­kies, con­sent must be given for all other coo­kies in advan­ce in com­pli­ance with the rele­vant requi­re­ments of Artic­les 4(11) and 7 GDPR.

In their cur­rent state­ments on the ent­ry into force of the TTDSG, some Ger­man data pro­tec­tion super­vi­so­ry aut­ho­ri­ties take a strict view and, as the fol­lo­wing over­view shows, only assu­me that coo­kies are “strict­ly neces­sa­ry” in nar­row excep­tio­nal cases:

  • Ham­burg Data Pro­tec­tion Aut­ho­ri­ty (only in Ger­man): “Accor­ding to the wor­ding, the excep­ti­ons are to be inter­pre­ted nar­row­ly. Para­graph 2, No. 2, for exam­p­le, con­ta­ins the phra­se ’strict­ly neces­sa­ry’, which, in light of the legis­la­ti­ve intent, is to be unders­tood as a tech­ni­cal, but not an eco­no­mic neces­si­ty. As a rule, the­r­e­fo­re, mea­su­ring ran­ge, user track­ing for adver­ti­sing pur­po­ses, etc. are not strict­ly neces­sa­ry for the pro­vi­si­on of a tele­me­dia ser­vice and the­r­e­fo­re requi­re con­sent in accordance with the TTDSG.”
  • Data pro­tec­tion super­vi­so­ry Aut­ho­ri­ty of Sax­o­ny (only in Ger­man): “Excep­ti­ons to this con­sent requi­re­ment are nar­row­ly limi­t­ed to strict neces­si­ty, enab­ling the pro­vi­der to pro­vi­de a tele­me­dia ser­vice express­ly reques­ted by the user.”
  • Ber­lin Data Pro­tec­tion Super­vi­so­ry Aut­ho­ri­ty (only in Ger­man): “Con­sent is not requi­red by way of excep­ti­on only if the sto­rage of and access to infor­ma­ti­on in the ter­mi­nal equip­ment is strict­ly neces­sa­ry in order to pro­vi­de a tele­me­dia ser­vice express­ly reques­ted by the users. This is the case, for exam­p­le, with a coo­kie used to store items from an online store in a shop­ping cart.”
  • Data Pro­tec­tion Super­vi­so­ry Aut­ho­ri­ty of Lower Sax­o­ny (only in Ger­man): “For tele­me­dia pro­vi­ders, the­re is an exemp­ti­on in § 25(2)2 TTDSG. […] Sin­ce this is an excep­ti­on, a nar­row under­stan­ding is gene­ral­ly to be assu­med, so that the­re will be only a few coo­kies and third-party ser­vices that can be used on the web­site wit­hout consent.”
  • Data Pro­tec­tion Super­vi­so­ry Aut­ho­ri­ty of North Rhine-Westphalia (only in Ger­man): “Con­sent is to be deter­mi­ned by the rules of the Gene­ral Data Pro­tec­tion Regu­la­ti­on. Howe­ver, excep­ti­ons to this con­sent are con­tai­ned in § 25(2) TTDSG. This excludes strict­ly func­tion­al coo­kies, such as shop­ping cart coo­kies or fraud pre­ven­ti­on systems.”

Howe­ver, sin­ce the ePri­va­cy Direc­ti­ve repres­ents a har­mo­ni­sa­ti­on of Euro­pean legis­la­ti­on, when asses­sing the neces­si­ty of a coo­kie, the opi­ni­ons of the Ger­man data pro­tec­tion super­vi­so­ry aut­ho­ri­ties and the recom­men­da­ti­ons of the Ger­man Con­fe­rence on Data Pro­tec­tion for Busi­ness announ­ced for ear­ly 2022 are of inte­rest, as is the assess­ment of other Euro­pean super­vi­so­ry aut­ho­ri­ties, such as the Spa­nish (PDF), French (PDF only in French) and Irish (PDF) regu­la­to­ry authorities.

The Luxem­bourg data pro­tec­tion super­vi­so­ry aut­ho­ri­ty now can be coun­ted among the super­vi­so­ry aut­ho­ri­ties that have issued an assess­ment in this regard. In its recent­ly published Gui­de to coo­kies and other tra­ckers (PDF only in French), the Com­mis­si­on natio­na­le pour la pro­tec­tion des don­nées (CNPD) pro­vi­des prac­ti­cal advice on informing web­site visi­tors and desig­ning coo­kie ban­ners and con­sent mana­gers, as well as an opi­ni­on on the need for pri­or con­sent to the pla­cing of coo­kies. In some respects, the CNPD’s assess­ment devia­tes con­sider­a­b­ly from the “Ger­man line”.

CNPD gui­de­lines on the need for consent

Accor­ding to the CNPD, the fol­lo­wing coo­kies can be con­side­red “strict­ly necessary”:

  • Coo­kies stored to record the coo­kie sel­ec­tion by the user.
  • Coo­kies used to authen­ti­ca­te the user, pro­vi­ded the coo­kie ser­ves this pur­po­se only. Howe­ver, accor­ding to the CNPD, this is not the case for the vast majo­ri­ty of coo­kies on social networks.
  • Coo­kies to remem­ber items added to a shop­ping cart.
  • Coo­kies used to store respon­ses in a cont­act form.
  • Coo­kies used to stream con­tent, pro­vi­ded the user has expres­sed his or her will to access the content.
  • Coo­kies for the per­so­na­li­sa­ti­on of ser­vices, such as view and lan­guage set­tings. Howe­ver, adver­ti­sing per­so­na­li­sa­ti­on does not fall into this category.
  • Coo­kies used for secu­ri­ty pur­po­ses, pro­vi­ded they are used exclu­si­ve­ly for secu­ri­ty pur­po­ses and exclu­si­ve­ly for the ope­ra­tor of the web­site or application.
  • Coo­kies used for sta­tis­ti­cal pur­po­ses, pro­vi­ded the ope­ra­tor of the web­site pro­ves that the use of cer­tain ana­ly­ti­cal coo­kies is neces­sa­ry for the pro­vi­si­on of the ser­vice, for exam­p­le, becau­se they are nee­ded to eva­lua­te ser­ver capa­ci­ty or to detect ope­ra­ting pro­blems. For this pur­po­se, the CNPD belie­ves that coo­kies must meet at least the fol­lo­wing requirements:

1. Coo­kies may not be pas­sed on to third par­ties or lin­ked to other data.

2. Coo­kies must also not pro­vi­de a com­pre­hen­si­ve record of the use of a page, nor a cross-website record.

3. Coo­kies may only be used by the web­site ope­ra­tor to crea­te anony­mous statistics.

In con­trast, the fol­lo­wing coo­kies are not strict­ly neces­sa­ry and requi­re pri­or con­sent accor­ding to the CNPD:

  • Coo­kies used to track the user across devices.
  • Coo­kies used to crea­te a user pro­fi­le, for exam­p­le by coll­ec­ting the user’s interests.
  • Coo­kies used to per­so­na­li­se advertising.
  • Coo­kies used for geo­lo­ca­ti­on, i.e. iden­ti­fy­ing the geo­gra­phic loca­ti­on of a user.
  • Social media plug­ins, such as a “Like” but­ton, if the plug­in reli­es on the use of cookies.

The CNPD’s view on social media plug­ins is nota­ble, as the Artic­le 29 Working Par­ty and some data pro­tec­tion super­vi­so­ry aut­ho­ri­ties that fol­low it (e.g. the Spa­nish, Bel­gi­an and Greek aut­ho­ri­ties) do not men­ti­on this limi­ta­ti­on. In addi­ti­on, it is inte­res­t­ing to note that the CNPD con­siders ana­ly­ti­cal coo­kies to be strict­ly neces­sa­ry under the afo­re­men­tio­ned con­di­ti­ons and thus not sub­ject to con­sent. Regar­ding the requi­red con­sent its­elf, the CNPD unders­cores in par­ti­cu­lar the requi­re­ment to pro­vi­de users pri­or infor­ma­ti­on, which is to be mea­su­red in terms of Artic­les 12 and 13 GDPR. 

Future regu­la­ti­on through an EU ePri­va­cy Regulation

The some­ti­mes dif­fe­ring views of the respec­ti­ve data pro­tec­tion super­vi­so­ry aut­ho­ri­ties are based to a not incon­sidera­ble degree on the diver­gent natio­nal imple­men­ta­ti­on of the ePri­va­cy Direc­ti­ve (PDF) in the various EU mem­ber sta­tes. This has also been reco­g­nis­ed by the Euro­pean Com­mis­si­on, which alre­a­dy in 2017 pre­sen­ted a Pro­po­sal for an ePri­va­cy Regu­la­ti­on (PDF). After some cri­ti­cism and years of tug-of-war  bet­ween the mem­ber sta­tes, the cur­rent draft is now rea­dy for the tria­lo­gue bet­ween the Euro­pean Com­mis­si­on, the Coun­cil of the Euro­pean Uni­on and the Euro­pean Parliament.

The CNPD also expres­ses in its gui­de­lines the hope that this Regu­la­ti­on will lead to a grea­ter con­for­mi­ty of the requi­re­ments for coo­kie with the rules of the GDPR and that the dif­fe­ren­ces in inter­pre­ta­ti­on and imple­men­ta­ti­on bet­ween the mem­ber sta­tes and the respec­ti­ve natio­nal aut­ho­ri­ties will be eliminated.


It will still be some time befo­re the ePri­va­cy Regu­la­ti­on brings about uni­form regu­la­ti­on. In view of the num­e­rous opi­ni­ons and the multi­tu­de of views, it is important for web­site ope­ra­tors to know the opi­ni­ons of the respec­ti­ve natio­nal super­vi­so­ry aut­ho­ri­ties and to imple­ment them. This is all the more true sin­ce coo­kies remain the focus of data pro­tec­tion aut­ho­ri­ties. Howe­ver, when con­side­ring whe­ther or not con­sent is requi­red, a strong case can be made for also taking into account the opi­ni­ons of other Euro­pean super­vi­so­ry aut­ho­ri­ties. Final­ly, it should not work to the detri­ment of com­pa­nies when a Euro­pean direc­ti­ve leads to a frag­men­ta­ti­on of the legal requi­re­ments for con­sent to coo­kies ins­tead of har­mo­ni­sa­ti­on. In this light, grea­ter coor­di­na­ti­on among the com­pe­tent super­vi­so­ry aut­ho­ri­ties in Euro­pe would also be desirable.


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